Green Resources and forestry plantations in Uganda
Kachung’s first carbon credits were purchased by the Swedish Energy Agency, with carbon contracts between 2012 and 2032 valued at $4 million.
Green Resources has obtained licenses from the National Forestry Authority (NFA) to engage in plantation forestry in two Central Forest reserves in Uganda; the Bukaleba Forest Reserve in Mayuge District (eastern Uganda) in 1996, and the Kachung Forest Reserve in Dokolo district (northern Uganda) in 1999.
Bukaleba Forest Reserve
At Bukaleba, Green Resources’ project activity includes reforestation on 5,780 hectares of so-called ‘degraded’ land (designated by the NFA), as well as being responsible for the maintenance of 3,385 hectares of land for conservation purposes.
Kachung Forest Reserve
Meanwhile at Kachung, project activity includes the establishment and management of exotic and indigenous afforestation on approximately 2,099 hectares of so-called ‘degraded’ grass and shrub land.
Plantation certification, tension and conflict
The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), which has previously come under intense scrutiny and legal action for its land and use rights standards and practices,[i] certified the Bukaleba plantation. The plantation was also validated and verified as an afforestation and reforestation project under the Verified Carbon Standard in 2012.[ii] High levels of tension and conflict in the four villages within the company license area are likely connected to the failure to obtain additional verifications at the Bukaleba site. However, with lower levels of conflict at the Kachung plantation, (largely due to villages being located outside of the forest reserve) Green Resources has been successful in obtaining additional verifications, including recognition as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project, and was validated under the Climate Community and Biodiversity Standards (CCBS) in 2011. Kachung’s first carbon credits were purchased by the Swedish Energy Agency, with carbon contracts between 2012 and 2032 valued at $4 million.[iii]
[i] FSC-Watch “oxfam report: 22,500 people evicted to make way for
FSC certified plantations in Uganda.” http://www.fsc-watch.org/ archives/2011/10/20/oxfam_report__22_500 (accessed august 31, 2014).
[ii] The Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) is a quality assurance program for participation in voluntary carbon markets. At Bukaleba the VCS provides accounting and reporting related to Green Resources ‘enhancement’ activities– including afforestation and reforestation. Achieving the VCS requires evidence of identification and mitigation of negative social and environmental requirements, compliance with local laws and monitoring and evaluation.
[iii] Green Resources. “Kachung Plantation, Uganda.” http://www.greenresources.no/Plantations/Uganda/Kachung.aspx (accessed July 23, 2014).